Autocratic, Bureaucratic, Democratic, Laissez-faire

Autocratic Leadership
Here the leaders retains power and decision-making authority. They do not consult employees and employees are not allowed to give any input. Employees are expected to obey without any explanations provided. Motivation is produced by rewards and punishments.

Autocratic leaders
•    rely on threats and punishment to influence
•    do not trust employees and  they do not allow for input

Situations where autocratic leadership can be used include:
•    new, untrained employees  who do not
     know which tasks to perform or which
     procedures to follow
•    effective supervision through detailed
     orders and instructions
•    employees do not respond to any other leadership style
•    high-volume production needs on daily basis
•    limited time to make decision
•    manager's power is challenged by an employee
•    area was poorly managed
•    work needs to be coordinated with another department or organization

Not to be used when employees
•    become tense, fearful or resentful
•    expect to have their opinions heard
•    begin depending on to make all their decisions
•    low employee morale, high turnover, absenteeism and work stoppage

Bureaucratic Leadership
Here the leaders go "by the book¨ that is according to set procedures and policies. If a situation or issue are not covered by the book, they then refer to the next level above. They are more of a police officer than a leader  where they enforce the rules.

Bureaucratic leadership can be effective when employees
•    performing routine tasks over and over
•    need to understand certain standards or
•    working with dangerous or delicate equipment which require a definite
     set of procedures to operate
•    safety or security training is being conducted
•    performing tasks that require handling cash

Ineffective when
•    work habits hard to break, especially if no
      longer useful
•    lose their interest in their jobs and in
     fellow workers
•    employees do only what is expected
     of them and no more

Democratic Leadership
Here leadership is participative, encouraging staff to be part of the decision making. They keep employees informed about everything that affects their work, shares decision making and problem solving. They are required to coach with final say but gathers
information from the staff before making decision. They can produce high quantity work for long periods of time. Many employees like the trust they receive and respond with cooperation, team spirit and high morale.

Typically the democratic leader
•    develops plans to help employees evaluate
     their own performance
•    allows employees to establish goals
•    encourages to grow on job and be
•    recognizes and encourages achievement.

Ingredients for participative leadership 
•    build culture for involvement
•    train people to participate
•    provide incentives
•    provide feedback for contribution
•    adopt appropriate leadership style
•    implement good suggestions
•    give recognition

Not always appropriate. Democratic leadership is most successful with highly skilled or experienced employees, when implementing operational changes and resolving individual or group problems.

Most effective when
•    keep employees informed about matters that affect them
•    share in decision-making and problem-solving
•    provide opportunities for employees to develop high sense of personal
     growth and job satisfaction
•    there is large or complex problem that requires lots of input to solve
•    changes must be made or problems solved that affect employees
•    encourage team building and participation

Should not be used when
•    not enough time to get everyone's input
•    easier and more cost-effective for manager to make decision
•    business can not afford mistakes
•    manager feels threatened by this type of leadership
•    employee safety is critical concern

Laissez-Faire Leadership
 This is a "hands-off¨ style which provides little or no direction.  Here freedom is allowed as much as possible. All authority or power is given to the employees  who must determine goals, make decisions and resolve problems on their own.

Effective style when employees
•    highly skilled, experienced and educated
•    have pride in their work and drive to do it successfully on their own
•    outside experts such as staff specialists or consultants are being used
•    employees are trustworthy and experienced

Should not be used when
•    it makes employees feel insecure at unavailability of a manager
•    can not provide regular feedback to let employees know how well
     they are doing
•    managers are unable to thank employees for their good work
•    manager does not understand responsibilities and
      is hoping the employees can cover for him or her

Varying Leadership Style depends On:
•    Manager's personal background
     - personality, knowledge, values,
     ethics and experiences, what does
     he or she think will work?

•    Employees being supervised - are
     individuals with different personalities
     and backgrounds. Vary depending upon
     individual employee and what style the employee will respond best to

•    Company - traditions, values, philosophy and concerns of company will
      influence how a manager acts.


•    Experience - leadership in the past

•    Capacity to create or inspire a vision

•    Message - communication that is
     understandable, convincing
     and persuasive

•    Strength and willingness to work hard

•    Perseverance and determination

•    A taste and flair for commerce

•    Ability to inspire enthusiasm

•    Willingness to take risks

•    Mental Toughness that is the ability make difficult decisions, handle
     criticisms or face discouragement

•    Empowering others

•    Ability select a good team

LEADERSHIP STYLES - 3 main approaches

•    Characteristic traits of leader

•    Situational Leadership - analyzes factors on situation that can
      lead to success

•    Analyze behavior and attitudes (Either concern with task or task
     oriented that is getting the job done. Or concern with people or
     people oriented - interested in the welfare of the workers)


•    Visionary Leader

•    Re-engineering Leader

•    Directional Leader

•    Strategic Leader

•    Managing Leader

•    Bridge-building Leader

•    Motivational Leader

•    Team Building Leader

•    Entrepreneurial Leader